Differences between secondary and primary flash formation on coating of HSS with AISI 316 using friction surfacing

Pedro Vilaca, Hannu Hanninen, Tapio Saukkonen, Rosa M. Miranda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Friction surfacing (FS) enables to deposit thick coating layers with fine grain for improvement of wear and corrosion properties of the substrates. The primary flash formation inherent to the FS process occurs around the consumable rod and grows in axial direction towards the clamping zone. If this primary flash growth is axially constrained, a secondary flash starts to grow parallel to surface of the substrate. This secondary flash stays in contact with the outer surface of the coating layer, affecting the properties of FS process. The influence of secondary and primary flash formation on coating is compared in detail via SEM and EBSD concerning the metallurgical structure of the deposited layer and joining mechanisms to the substrate. In the present study, a dissimilar metal coating layer with thickness of about 1 mm is produced. The consumable rod is austenitic stainless steel AISI 316, with 10 mm in diameter, and substrate is a plate of high-strength steel (HSS). The secondary flash formation has a beneficial effect on FS process efficiency and hardness of the coating, overmatching the hardness of the HSS substrate. This fact represents opportunities for several industrial applications and a new field of research for further improvement of FS process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)661-671
Number of pages11
JournalWelding in the World
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014


  • Friction surfacing
  • Process conditions
  • Austenitic stainless steels
  • High-strength steels
  • Electron microscopy


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