Dielectric Characterization of Healthy Human Teeth from 0.5 to 18 GHz with an Open-Ended Coaxial Probe

Mariya Berezhanska, Daniela M. Godinho, Paulo Maló, Raquel C. Conceição

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


Dental caries is a major oral health issue which compromises oral health, as it is the main cause of oral pain and tooth loss. Early caries detection is essential for effective clinical intervention. However, methods commonly employed for its diagnosis often fail to detect early caries lesions, which motivates the research for more effective diagnostic solutions. In this work, the relative permittivity of healthy permanent teeth, in caries-prone areas, was studied between 0.5 and 18 GHz. The reliability of such measurements is an important first step to, ultimately, evaluate the feasibility of a microwave device for caries detection. The open-ended coaxial probe technique was employed. Its performance showed to be compromised by the poor probe-tooth contact. We proposed a method based on applying coupling media to reduce this limitation. A decrease in the measured relative permittivity variability was observed when the space between the probe tip and tooth surface was filled by coupling media instead of air. The influence of the experimental conditions in the measurement result was found to be less than 5%. Measurements conducted in ex vivo teeth showed that the relative permittivity of the dental crown and root ranges between 10.0–11.0 and 8.0–9.5, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1617
Number of pages20
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2023


  • microwave diagnostics
  • open ended coaxial probe (OECP)
  • relative permittivity
  • teeth and dental caries


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