Determinants of HIV-1 late presentation in patients followed in europe

Mafalda N.S. Miranda, Marta Pingarilho, Victor Pimentel, Maria Do Rosário O. Martins, Anne Mieke Vandamme, Marina Bobkova, Michael Böhm, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Roger Paredes, Rafael Rubio, Maurizio Zazzi, Francesca Incardona, Ana Abecasis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)
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To control the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) set the 90-90-90 target to be reached by 2020. One major threat to those goals is late presentation, which is defined as an individual presenting a TCD4+ count lower than 350 cells/mm3 or an AIDS-defining event. The present study aims to identify determinants of late presentation in Europe based on the EuResist database with HIV-1 infected patients followed-up between 1981 and 2019. Our study includes clinical and socio-demographic information from 89,851 HIV-1 infected patients. Statistical analysis was performed using RStudio and SPSS and a Bayesian network was constructed with the WEKA software to analyze the association between all variables. Among 89851 HIV-1 infected patients included in the analysis, the median age was 33 (IQR: 27.0–41.0) years and 74.4% were males. Of those, 28,889 patients (50.4%) were late presenters. Older patients (>56), heterosexuals, patients originated from Africa and patients presenting with log VL >4.1 had a higher probability of being late presenters (p < 0.001). Bayesian networks indicated VL, mode of transmis-sion, age and recentness of infection as variables that were directly associated with LP. This study highlights the major determinants associated with late presentation in Europe. This study helps to direct prevention measures for this population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number835
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Europe
  • HIV-1 infection
  • Late presentation


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