Determinants of HIV-1 Late Presentation in a Cohort of Portuguese HIV-1 Patients

Ana Cláudia Miranda, Mafalda Miranda, Marta Pingarilho, Victor Pimentel, João Torres, Susana Peres, Teresa Baptista Alberto, Perpetua Gomes, Ana Abecasis, Kamal Mansinho

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Undiagnosed HIV-1 patients still account for 25% of worldwide HIV patients. Studying late presenters (LPs) for HIV care may help to identify characteristics of such patients. The present study aims to identify factors associated with late presentation and late presentation with advanced disease based on a population of patients followed in a Portuguese hospital between 1984 and 2017. Sociodemographic and clinical data from infected patients with HIV-1 aged 18 years and older, followed in Egas Moniz Hospital, in Portugal were collected. Of the 907 patients included in this study, 68.7% were males and the median age was 37 years (interquartile range 30-47). Four hundred fifty-nine patients (50.6%) were LP and, of these, 284 patients (61.9%) were LPAD. The LP population mostly originated from Portugal and sub-Saharan Africa (64.4% and 28.8%; p = .004) and the HIV exposure category, mainly heterosexuals and men have sex with men (57.0% and 24.9%; p < .001). The stage of disease and viral load at diagnosis were significantly associated with both LP and LPAD (p < .001). Factors associated with LP in the logistic regression included age at diagnosis lower than 30 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.34; 0.17-0.68; p = .002) and origin from sub-Saharan Africa (aOR 2.24; 1.44-3.50; p < .001). Late presentation is a major obstacle to halt the HIV epidemic. In this population, the majority of newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals were LPs. Our results characterize vulnerable populations that should be frequently tested for HIV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)846-851
Number of pages6
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number11
Early online date16 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - 5 Nov 2021


  • HIV-1 infection
  • late presentation
  • late presentation with advanced disease


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