The detection of carbapenemase extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales (EB) has become a major issue among critically ill patients, especially due to their impact on appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study aimed at evaluating the potential contribution of molecular assays to early optimization of empirical antibiotic therapy among critically ill patients with carbapenemase- and/or CTX-M-producing EB pneumonia. The CRE and ESBL ELITe MGB® assays were evaluated directly on 197 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples obtained from 120 patients. Molecular results were then compared to routine culture-based diagnostic results, and a retrospective analysis of the therapeutic antimicrobial management was performed. Among the 197 clinical specimens, blaKPC-like and blaCTX-M-like were detected in 20 (10.2%) and 12 (6.1%) specimens belonging to 15 and 11 patients, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the CRE ELITe MGB Kit were 85% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.9-94.6] and 100%, respectively. PPV and NPV of the ESBL ELITe MGB Kit were 75% [95% CI: 49.4-90.2] and 100%, respectively. Retrospective analysis of the therapeutic antimicrobial management at the time of BAL collection showed that in ∼50% of patients with carbapenemase- and CTX-M-producing EB pneumonia empirical antibiotic therapy could have been optimized at least 48-72 hr earlier if positive molecular data had been used. The CRE and ESBL ELITe MGB assays might be an interesting tool for expediting optimization of empirical antibiotic therapy in critically ill patients with pneumonia, depending on local epidemiology of antibiotic resistance, patient risk stratification for EB infection, and availability of an antimicrobial stewardship team.