Design of Ionic-Liquid-Based Hybrid Polymer Materials with a Magnetoactive and Electroactive Multifunctional Response

Liliana C. Fernandes, Daniela M. Correia, Eduardo Fernández, Mohammad Tariq, José M. S. S. Esperança, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Multifunctional materials with sensor and actuator capabilities play an increasing role in modern technology. In this scope, hybrid materials with magnetic sensing and an electromechanical actuator response based on magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) and the polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) have been developed. MILs comprising different cation alkyl chain lengths [Cnmim]+ and sharing the same anion [FeCl4]- were incorporated at 20 wt % into the PVDF matrix and the morphological, physical, chemical, and functional properties of the materials were evaluated. An increasing IL alkyl chain length leads to the formation of a porous structure, together with an increase in the electroactive PVDF β-phase content of the polymer and a decrease in the crystallinity degree and thermal stability. The magnetic susceptibility of the [Cnmim][FeCl4]/PVDF films reveals a paramagnetic behavior. The multifunctional response is characterized by a magnetoionic response that decreases with increasing IL alkyl chain length, the highest magnetoionic coefficient (1.06 ± 0.015 V cm-1 Oe-1) being observed for [C2mim][FeCl4]/PVDF. The electromechanical actuator response is characterized by a highest displacement of 1.1 mm for the [C4mim][FeCl4]/PVDF film by applying a voltage of 4 V at a frequency of 100 mHz. Further, their solution processing makes these multiresponsive materials compatible with additive manufacturing technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42089-42098
Number of pages10
JournalAcs Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number37
Publication statusPublished - 16 Sep 2020


  • composites
  • electroactive polymers
  • hybrid materials
  • magnetic ionic liquids
  • PVDF


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