Design and optimization of an ultra wideband and compact microwave antenna for radiometric monitoring of brain temperature

Dario B. Rodrigues, Paolo F. Maccarini, Sara Salahi, Tiago R. C. F. Oliveira, Pedro J. S. Pereira, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Brent W. Snow, Doug Reudink, Paul R. Stauffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


We present the modeling efforts on antenna design and frequency selection to monitor brain temperature during prolonged surgery using noninvasive microwave radiometry. A tapered log-spiral antenna design is chosen for its wideband characteristics that allow higher power collection from deep brain. Parametric analysis with the software HFSS is used to optimize antenna performance for deep brain temperature sensing. Radiometric antenna efficiency (η) is evaluated in terms of the ratio of power collected from brain to total power received by the antenna. Anatomical information extracted from several adult computed tomography scans is used to establish design parameters for constructing an accurate layered 3-D tissue phantom. This head phantom includes separate brain and scalp regions, with tissue equivalent liquids circulating at independent temperatures on either side of an intact skull. The optimized frequency band is 1.1-1.6 GHz producing an average antenna efficiency of 50.3% from a two turn log-spiral antenna. The entire sensor package is contained in a lightweight and low-profile 2.8 cm diameter by 1.5 cm high assembly that can be held in place over the skin with an electromagnetic interference shielding adhesive patch. The calculated radiometric equivalent brain temperature tracks within 0.4°C of the measured brain phantom temperature when the brain phantom is lowered 10°C and then returned to the original temperature (37°C) over a 4.6-h experiment. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the optimized 2.5-cm log-spiral antenna is well suited for the noninvasive radiometric sensing of deep brain temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6798662
Pages (from-to)2154-2160
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Antenna design
  • Brain temperature
  • log-spiral antenna
  • Microwave radiometry
  • Noninvasive monitoring


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