Depression and anxiety in later COVID-19 waves across Europe: New evidence from the European COvid Survey (ECOS)

André Hajek, Sebastian Neumann-Böhme, Iryna Sabat, Aleksandra Torbica, Jonas Schreyögg, Pedro Pita Barros, Tom Stargardt, Hans Helmut König

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We aimed to investigate the prevalence of probable depression and anxiety and their correlates during later stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in eight European countries. Longitudinal data (wave 7 in June/July 2021: n=8,032; wave 8 in September 2021: n=8,250; wave 9 in December 2021/January 2022: n=8,319) were used from the European COvid Survey – a representative sample of community-dwelling adults from several European countries (Germany, United Kingdom, Denmark, Netherlands, France, Portugal, Italy and Spain). In wave 7 (wave 8; wave 9), 23.8% (22.0%; 24.3%) of all respondents had probable depression and 22.6% (22.1%; 23.7%) had probable anxiety. These prevalence rates substantially differed between the European countries. Regressions showed that emerging difficulties with the income were associated with both increases in depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. An increase in one's own perceived risk of getting infected with the SARS-CoV-2, the birth of a child and an increase in the Covid-19 stringency index were associated with increases in depressive symptoms. The significance of probable depression and anxiety during later stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in eight European countries was highlighted. Avoiding income difficulties may also contribute to mental health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114902
JournalPsychiatry Research
Volume317
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Corona
  • COVID-19
  • Depression
  • Europe
  • Income
  • Longitudinal
  • Mental health
  • Representative
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Stringency Index

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