Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) data and anal cancer data from Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), the largest hospital and a reference for oncological diseases in Mozambique, with the aim of characterising the disease profile in view to define an appropriate control programme. Methods: MCH records from the Pathology and Surgery Services and MCH Cancer Registry database were assessed to obtain retrospective clinical and pathologic data of patients with CRC or anal cancer admitted to and treated between 13 December 2013 and 23 March 2016. Results: The female gender was more prevalent (54.8%), even when anal cancers were excluded. Median age was 54 years (20 99). Most patients (51.6%) lived in the city of Maputo. The most common presenting symptom was found to be rectal bleeding. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type, and the most prevalent anatomical site was the rectum. Most of the cases were diagnosed at MCH in advanced stages. Colostomy was the most frequent surgical procedure and performed in 38.7% of the patients. Most cases of anal cancer occurred in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Most patients had a poor prognosis due to advanced stage at first diagnosis. Conclusion: We observed an increase in cases of CRC and anal cancer in Mozambique and mostly diagnosed at advanced stages, which anticipates a dismal prognosis. Our data supports the urgent need of a comprehensive public health programme dedicated to solving this growing concern.