Defenses of multidrug resistant pathogens against reactive nitrogen species produced in infected hosts

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Bacterial pathogens have sophisticated systems that allow them to survive in hosts in which innate immunity is the frontline of defense. One of the substances produced by infected hosts is nitric oxide (NO) that together with its derived species leads to the so-called nitrosative stress, which has antimicrobial properties. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on targets and protective systems that bacteria have to survive host-generated nitrosative stress. We focus on bacterial pathogens that pose serious health concerns due to the growing increase in resistance to currently available antimicrobials. We describe the role of nitrosative stress as a weapon for pathogen eradication, the detoxification enzymes, protein/DNA repair systems and metabolic strategies that contribute to limiting NO damage and ultimately allow survival of the pathogen in the host. Additionally, this systematization highlights the lack of available data for some of the most important human pathogens, a gap that urgently needs to be addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Microbial Physiology
EditorsRobert K. Poole, David J. Kelly
PublisherAcademic Press
Number of pages71
ISBN (Print)9780323988698
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Publication series

NameAdvances in Microbial Physiology
ISSN (Print)0065-2911


  • Human pathogen
  • Innate immunity
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitrosative stress


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