The Palace of Knossos, located on the island of Crete, Greece, is one of Europe's most important archaeological sites, serving as a testament to the Minoan civilization. Situated near the Mediterranean Sea, it is in close proximity to the seaport, airport, and industrial areas. Decay products commonly found in historical monuments within or near urban areas, such as black crusts and salt efflorescence, are also prevalent at the Palace of Knossos. To better understand the characteristics of the type of deterioration compounds found on cement in historical reconstruction zones, as well as their possible relationship with factors influencing the deterioration process, a multi-analytical approach was designed for the study of these materials. The results indicate that the black crusts primarily consist of gypsum and carbonaceous matter. However, the efflorescence salts are predominantly composed of thenardite instead of halite, despite the palace's proximity to the coastal area. These results may contribute to ongoing and future maintenance and preservation efforts for the monument.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-119
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cultural Heritage
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


  • Archaeological site
  • Cement
  • Chemical characterization
  • Heritage building


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