Cystoseira (Sargassaceae) is a genus of marine brown algae composed of about 40 species, which is distributed along the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. The biological potential of the Cystoseira genus has been investigated and several activities have been reported. Chemically, this genus contains a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as terpenoids, steroids, phlorotannins and phenolic compounds. Additionally, other chemical components as, for instance, carbohydrates, triacylglycerols/fatty acids, pigments as well as vitamins have been identified in the studied species. Some of the isolated compounds were associated with the reported pharmacological properties, as for example antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, anticancer, cholinesterase inhibition, anti-diabetic, activities but also antibacterial, antifungal and anti-parasitic activities. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the compounds isolated and identified after 1995 from the different species of Cystoseira, compiling more than 200 compounds isolated, together with their therapeutic potential.