Cyber-Physical-Social Systems: Taxonomy, Challenges, and Opportunities

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14 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


A Cyber-Physical-Social System (CPSS) is a novel paradigm of cyber-physical and cyber-social systems with a highly inhomogeneous and distributed nature integrating dynamic stochastic hybrid systems including computation, communication, sensing and actuation, and social systems.Their usage can be traced to homes such as smart homes, manufacturers in Industry 5.0, critical infrastructures, smart cities, medicines, healthcare systems, and many other examples. They can simplify and speed up tasks and provide a higher level of control and accessibility. In this study, we provide a systematic review of the definition of CPSS,and an uniform definition of CPSS. We propose a novel taxonomy to define CPSS to help future researches and system designing. The CPSS taxonomy aims to provide a comprehensive and understating of CPSS characteristics and aspects from system-to-system point of view. Furthermore, we discuss about social integration in CPSS and their relationships with CPS. We mention issues and opportunities in CPSS in the designing and implementing phases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42404-42419
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2022


  • Taxonomy
  • Social networking (online)
  • Business
  • Cyberspace
  • Social computing
  • Smart cities
  • Computational modeling
  • System of systems
  • taxonomy cyber-physical-social systems
  • human-in-the-loop
  • social systems


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