Current methodologies for the assessment of deep eutectic systems toxicology: Challenges and perspectives

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Deep eutectic systems (DES) are a mixture of two or more components where at least one works as a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and another as a hydrogen bond donor (HBD). DES most distinctive characteristic is the fact that the mixture possesses a lower melting point, when compared to the melting point of its individual components. These systems have emerged as a “greener alternative” to organic solvents, while also offering several advantages over other “green” solvents such as ionic liquids (IL). However, the number of studies concerning the real biodegradability and biocompatibility are scarce and the methodologies are scattered through different articles. Current state of the art provides several reports using different models, namely using prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells but also more complex models considering whole organisms, such as plants and animals, attempting to understand DES toxicity at different complexity levels. The currently used methodologies is very different among authors, thus the standardization is urgently needed. This review's purpose is to summarize the available data about DES toxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability, while also assembling the different methodologies used in an effort to pave the way so that standard guidelines for future research work are established.

Original languageEnglish
Article number119675
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Molecular Liquids
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2022


  • Biocompatibility
  • Biodegradability
  • DES
  • Green solvents
  • Toxicity


Dive into the research topics of 'Current methodologies for the assessment of deep eutectic systems toxicology: Challenges and perspectives'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this