Crowdsourcing-Based Fingerprinting for Indoor Location in Multi-Storey Buildings

Ricardo Santos, Ricardo Leonardo, Marmilia Barandas, Dinis Moreira, Tiago Rocha, Pedro Urbano Alves, João P. Oliveira, Hugo Gamboa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
71 Downloads (Pure)


The number of available indoor location solutions has been growing, however with insufficient precision, high implementation costs or scalability limitations. As fingerprinting-based methods rely on ubiquitous information in buildings, the need for additional infrastructure is discarded. Still, the time-consuming manual process to acquire fingerprints limits their applicability in most scenarios. This paper proposes an algorithm for the automatic construction of environmental fingerprints on multi-storey buildings, leveraging the information sources available in each scenario. It relies on unlabelled crowdsourced data from users’ smartphones. With only the floor plans as input, a demand for most applications, we apply a multimodal approach that joins inertial data, local magnetic field andWi-Fi signals to construct highly accurate fingerprints. Precise movement estimation is achieved regardless of smartphone usage through Deep Neural Networks, and the transition between floors detected from barometric data. Users’ trajectories obtained with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning techniques are partitioned into clusters with Wi-Fi measurements. Straight sections from the same cluster are then compared with subsequence Dynamic Time Warping to search for similarities. From the identified overlapping sections, a particle filter fits each trajectory into the building’s floor plans. From all successfully mapped routes, fingerprints labelled with physical locations are finally obtained. Experimental results from an office and a university building show that this solution constructs comparable fingerprints to those acquired manually, thus providing a useful tool for fingerprinting-based solutions automatic setup.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31143-31160
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Buildings
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Fingerprinting
  • Indoor Location
  • Inertial Tracking
  • IP networks
  • Magnetic Field
  • Multistorey
  • Sensors
  • Smart phones
  • Trajectory
  • Unsupervised
  • Wi-Fi
  • Wireless fidelity


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