Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease which leads to pain and disability. Recent studies focus on the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in inducing or worsening joint damage in hand OA patients, suggesting that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation may represent a possible linking factor. The gut microbiome has a crucial metabolic role which is fundamental for immune system development, among other important functions. Intestinal microbiota dysbiosis may favour metabolic syndrome and low-grade inflammation-two important components of hand OA onset and evolution. The aim of this narrative is to review the recent literature concerning the possible contribution of dysbiosis to hand OA onset and progression, and to discuss the importance of gut dysbiosis on general health and disease.