The proposed hypothesis of this Special Issue is that the degree to which cross-border cooperation happens, results to some extent from the capacity the border community and/or a variety of social actors who exert some sort of influence over territorial matters have to reduce transaction costs. Cross-border cooperation has been going on for decades, and a lot has been theorized on the matter. This paper does not propose to contribute significantly towards the theoretical debate but to present some empirical conclusions using the Portugal–Spanish border, more specifically the Galicia–North of Portugal European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation. In this case study we consider the interaction between social actors and border community and how certain transaction costs have been addressed, seeking to identify variations in border effects and what has been the border community response. The debate will center on the aspect of the networks emerging over this border and their interaction with the borderland communities.