To determine the association between hyperglycemia, glycated albumin (GlyA) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Prospective study of all infants under ROP screening from March 2017 to July 2019. All demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Glucose was measured at birth and every 8 h for the first week and serum GlyA was evaluated at birth, 1st, 2nd and 4th weeks after birth. Reference range for GlyA was obtained. Univariate logistic regression was used to examine risk factors for ROP followed by multivariate regression. A total of 152 infants were included in the study. Median gestational age was 30 weeks and median birth weight 1240 g. Thirty-three infants (21.7%) had ROP. Hyperglycemia was present in 24 (72.7%) infants diagnosed with any ROP versus 6 (0.05%) in those without ROP. Median GlyA at birth, 1st, 2nd and 4th and respective reference ranges were 8.50% (6.00–12.65), 8.20% (5.32–11.67), 8.00% (5.32–10.00) and 7.90% (5.30–9.00) respectively. After multivariate logistic regression, hyperglycemia but not GlyA, remained a significant risk factor for ROP overpowering the other recognized risk factors (Exp (B) 28.062, 95% CI for Exp(B) 7.881–99.924 p < 0.001). In our cohort, hyperglycemia but not GlyA, remained a significant risk factor for ROP overpowering the other recognized risk factors.