Laser-induced graphene (LIG) is a foam-like porous material consisting of few-layer graphene obtained by laser irradiation of a wide range of carbon-containing substrates. Among these, the ability to synthesize LIG from paper and other cellulose-related materials is particularly exciting, as it opens the door to a wide assortment of potential applications in the form of low-cost, flexible, and biodegradable devices. Here, the synthesis of this material, dubbed paper-LIG, on different types of filter papers and xylan biopolymer is discussed. In particular, we report the formation of paper-LIG by single-step irradiation, providing an improvement over the conventional multiple lasing approach and giving an explanation of the conditions that allow this simplified synthesis. All the relevant process parameters are covered, assessing their effect on the resulting electrical properties, structure, and morphology. Additionally, we demonstrate the application of LIG obtained from xylan, an abundant and often underutilized biopolymer, for temperature sensing. These results provide a better understanding of the conditions required for the synthesis of highly conductive LIG from paper and related materials, paving the way for its application, with reduced cost and low environmental impact, in fields ranging from biomonitoring to consumer electronics.