Consumer-driven improvement of maize bread formulations with legume fortification

Luís M. Cunha, Susana C. Fonseca, Rui C. Lima, José Loureiro, Alexandra S. Pinto, M. Carlota Vaz Patto, Carla Brites

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


The fortification of maize bread with legume flour was explored in order to increase the protein content of the traditional Portuguese bread ‘broa’, comprised of more than 50% maize flour. The optimization of legume incorporation (pea, chickpea, faba bean, lentil), considering the influence of different maize flours (traditional-white, traditional-yellow, hybrid-white, hybrid-yellow), on consumer liking and sensory profiling of ‘broa’ was studied. A panel of 60 naïve tasters evaluated twenty different breads, divided in four sets for each legume flour fortification, each set including four breads with varying maize flour and a control (no legume). Tasters evaluated overall liking and the sensory profile through a check-all-that-apply ballot. Crude protein and water content were also analyzed. There were no significant differences in overall liking between the different types of legumes and maize. The incorporation of chickpea flour yields a sensory profile that most closely resembles the control. The protein content increased, on average, 21% in ‘broa’, with legume flours having the highest value obtained with faba bean incorporation (29% increase). Thus, incorporation of legume flours appears to be an interesting strategy to increase bread protein content, with no significant impact on consumer liking and the ‘broa’ bread sensory profile.

Original languageEnglish
Article number235
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • Chickpea
  • Faba bean
  • Legume fortification
  • Lentil
  • Maize bread
  • Pea
  • Protein content


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