Consistency in mixed demand systems: contingent valuation and travel cost data

Maria A. Cunha-e-Sá, Maria M. Ducla-Soares, Luís Catela Nunes, Philippe Polomé

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In contrast to previous literature, we propose a consistency test that does not impose any particular common functional form for the preference structure underlying the travel cost (TC) and contingent valuation (CV) models. We derive testable consistency conditions between TC and CV data in the context of mixed demand systems when valuing changes in environmental quality. These conditions are a subset of the rationality conditions. The proposed consistency tests are implemented combining TC and CV data. The empirical results show that it is possible to combine stated TC and CV, but not revealed TC and CV data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-454
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Agricultural Economics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2004


  • Consistency
  • Contingent valuation
  • Data combination
  • Travel cost


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