To assess the estrogenic potency of the treated domestic sewage effluent from a sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Lisbon (Chelas), 60 mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of the sewage effluent (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) for two periods of 28 days in two different seasons (winter/spring). Vitellogenin induction in males was used as a biomarker of exposure to xenoestrogens. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken for vitellogenin analysis and the fish were sacrificed and dissected. Gonad samples were taken for histological evaluation of the sewage effects. The results showed an increase in vitellogenin induction in exposed fish, both males and females, depending on the different dilutions of the sewage effluent. In comparison with controls, the gonadosomatic index decreased significantly (P<0.05) in fish exposed to 100% treated effluent. Although statistically not significant, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) was high in all exposed fish. Histological abnormalities in fish gonads were evaluated and related to the different percentages of sewage effluent. Seasonal variations found in estrogenic responses were attributed to weather influences on sewage dilution.
- Sewage effluent
- Cyprinus carpio
- Endocrine disruption
- Seasonal variations
Diniz, M. E. C. D. S., Peres, I., & Pihan, J. C. (2005). Comparative estrogenic responses of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a treated municipal sewage effluent (Lisbon) in two seasonal periods. The Science of the total environment, 349(NA), 129-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.01.014