Purpose of Review: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the cause of a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. The purpose of this study was to review recent literature for epidemiological trends and management of CAP in HIV patients. Recent Findings: While the specific infectious etiologies are very diverse, bacterial infection and tuberculosis are the main causes of CAP in this population. Bacterial CAP mostly affects high-income countries, while tuberculosis is mostly in low-/middle-income countries. Early antiretroviral therapy is of benefit for all patients regardless of etiology and immune status. Summary: Specific etiologies require individualized approaches, both therapeutically and prophylatically. Antiretroviral therapy is recommended for all patients.
- Community-acquired pneumonia
- Human immunodeficiency virus