Cobalt Ferrite Synthesized Using a Biogenic Sol–Gel Method for Biomedical Applications

Patrícia Gomes, Bárbara Costa, João P. F. Carvalho, Paula I. P. Soares, Tânia Vieira, Célia Henriques, Manuel Almeida Valente, Sílvia Soreto Teixeira

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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Conventional treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have limitations and severe side effects. Magnetic hyperthermia (MH) is an alternative method that can be used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy or radiotherapy to treat cancer. Cobalt ferrite particles were synthesized using an innovative biogenic sol–gel method with powder of coconut water (PCW). The obtained powders were subjected to heat treatments between 500 °C and 1100 °C. Subsequently, they were characterized by thermal, structural, magnetic, and cytotoxic analyses to assess their suitability for MH applications. Through X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, it was possible to confirm the presence of the pure phase of CoFe2O4 in the sample treated at 1100 °C, exhibiting a saturation magnetization of 84 emu/g at 300 K and an average grain size of 542 nm. Furthermore, the sample treated at 1100 °C showed a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3.91 W/g, and at concentrations equal to or below 5 mg/mL, is non-cytotoxic, being the most suitable for biomedical applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7737
Number of pages12
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2023


  • cancer
  • cobalt ferrite
  • magnetic hyperthermia
  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • sol–gel


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