Abstract

Poor ventilation at day care centres (DCCs) was already reported, although its effects on attending children are not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between wheezing in children and indoor CO2 (a ventilation surrogate marker) in DCC and to identify behaviours and building characteristics potentially related to CO2. In phase I, 45 DCCs from Lisbon and Oporto (Portugal) were selected through a proportional stratified random sampling. In phase II, 3 months later, 19 DCCs were further reassessed after cluster analysis for the greatest difference comparison. In both phases, children's respiratory health was assessed by ISAAC-derived questionnaires. Indoor CO2 concentrations and building characteristics of the DCC were evaluated in both phases, using complementary methods. Mixed effect models were used to analyze the data. In phase I, which included 3,186 children (mean age 3.1±1.5 years), indoor CO2 concentration in the DCC rooms was associated with reported wheezing in the past 12 months (27.5 %) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each increase of 200 ppm 1.04, 95 % CI 1:01 to 1:07). In phase II, the association in the subsample of 1,196 children seen in 19 out of the initial 45 DCCs was not significant (adjusted OR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.96 to 1.08). Indoor CO2 concentration was inversely associated with the practices of opening windows and internal doors and with higher wind velocity. A positive trend was observed between CO2 and prevalence of reported asthma (4.7 %). Conclusion: Improved ventilation is needed to achieve a healthier indoor environment in DCC. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1041-1049
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal Of Pediatrics
Volume173
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Respiratory Sounds
Ventilation
Odds Ratio
Portugal
Cluster Analysis
Asthma
Biomarkers

Keywords

  • carbon dioxide
  • tobacco smoke
  • carbon dioxide, allergic rhinitis
  • ambient air
  • article
  • asthma
  • atopic dermatitis
  • child
  • cluster analysis
  • comfort
  • concentration (parameters)
  • day care
  • disease association
  • female
  • human
  • humidity
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • priority journal
  • questionnaire
  • wheezing
  • abnormal respiratory sound
  • adverse effects
  • air conditioning
  • environmental health
  • indoor air pollution
  • preschool child
  • prevalence
  • risk factor
  • statistics and numerical data, Air Pollution, Indoor
  • Asthma
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Child Day Care Centers
  • Child, Preschool
  • Environmental Health
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Respiratory Sounds
  • Risk Factors
  • Ventilation

Cite this

@article{c52b9b9b575d46e9969828c321c08a64,
title = "CO2 concentration in day care centres is related to wheezing in attending children",
abstract = "Poor ventilation at day care centres (DCCs) was already reported, although its effects on attending children are not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between wheezing in children and indoor CO2 (a ventilation surrogate marker) in DCC and to identify behaviours and building characteristics potentially related to CO2. In phase I, 45 DCCs from Lisbon and Oporto (Portugal) were selected through a proportional stratified random sampling. In phase II, 3 months later, 19 DCCs were further reassessed after cluster analysis for the greatest difference comparison. In both phases, children's respiratory health was assessed by ISAAC-derived questionnaires. Indoor CO2 concentrations and building characteristics of the DCC were evaluated in both phases, using complementary methods. Mixed effect models were used to analyze the data. In phase I, which included 3,186 children (mean age 3.1±1.5 years), indoor CO2 concentration in the DCC rooms was associated with reported wheezing in the past 12 months (27.5 {\%}) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each increase of 200 ppm 1.04, 95 {\%} CI 1:01 to 1:07). In phase II, the association in the subsample of 1,196 children seen in 19 out of the initial 45 DCCs was not significant (adjusted OR 1.02, 95 {\%} CI 0.96 to 1.08). Indoor CO2 concentration was inversely associated with the practices of opening windows and internal doors and with higher wind velocity. A positive trend was observed between CO2 and prevalence of reported asthma (4.7 {\%}). Conclusion: Improved ventilation is needed to achieve a healthier indoor environment in DCC. {\circledC} 2014 Springer-Verlag.",
keywords = "carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke, carbon dioxide, allergic rhinitis, ambient air, article, asthma, atopic dermatitis, child, cluster analysis, comfort, concentration (parameters), day care, disease association, female, human, humidity, major clinical study, male, priority journal, questionnaire, wheezing, abnormal respiratory sound, adverse effects, air conditioning, environmental health, indoor air pollution, preschool child, prevalence, risk factor, statistics and numerical data, Air Pollution, Indoor, Asthma, Carbon Dioxide, Child Day Care Centers, Child, Preschool, Environmental Health, Female, Humans, Male, Prevalence, Respiratory Sounds, Risk Factors, Ventilation",
author = "Martins, {Pedro Carreiro} and Papoila, {Ana Luisa} and Daniel Aelenei and Iolanda Caires and Jos{\'e} Ara{\'u}jo-Martins and Jo{\~a}o Gaspar-Marques and Pinto, {Paula Leiria} and Nuno Neuparth",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1007/s00431-014-2288-4",
language = "English",
volume = "173",
pages = "1041--1049",
journal = "European Journal Of Pediatrics",
issn = "0340-6199",
publisher = "Springer-Verlag",
number = "8",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - CO2 concentration in day care centres is related to wheezing in attending children

AU - Martins, Pedro Carreiro

AU - Papoila, Ana Luisa

AU - Aelenei, Daniel

AU - Caires, Iolanda

AU - Araújo-Martins, José

AU - Gaspar-Marques, João

AU - Pinto, Paula Leiria

AU - Neuparth, Nuno

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Poor ventilation at day care centres (DCCs) was already reported, although its effects on attending children are not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between wheezing in children and indoor CO2 (a ventilation surrogate marker) in DCC and to identify behaviours and building characteristics potentially related to CO2. In phase I, 45 DCCs from Lisbon and Oporto (Portugal) were selected through a proportional stratified random sampling. In phase II, 3 months later, 19 DCCs were further reassessed after cluster analysis for the greatest difference comparison. In both phases, children's respiratory health was assessed by ISAAC-derived questionnaires. Indoor CO2 concentrations and building characteristics of the DCC were evaluated in both phases, using complementary methods. Mixed effect models were used to analyze the data. In phase I, which included 3,186 children (mean age 3.1±1.5 years), indoor CO2 concentration in the DCC rooms was associated with reported wheezing in the past 12 months (27.5 %) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each increase of 200 ppm 1.04, 95 % CI 1:01 to 1:07). In phase II, the association in the subsample of 1,196 children seen in 19 out of the initial 45 DCCs was not significant (adjusted OR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.96 to 1.08). Indoor CO2 concentration was inversely associated with the practices of opening windows and internal doors and with higher wind velocity. A positive trend was observed between CO2 and prevalence of reported asthma (4.7 %). Conclusion: Improved ventilation is needed to achieve a healthier indoor environment in DCC. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

AB - Poor ventilation at day care centres (DCCs) was already reported, although its effects on attending children are not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between wheezing in children and indoor CO2 (a ventilation surrogate marker) in DCC and to identify behaviours and building characteristics potentially related to CO2. In phase I, 45 DCCs from Lisbon and Oporto (Portugal) were selected through a proportional stratified random sampling. In phase II, 3 months later, 19 DCCs were further reassessed after cluster analysis for the greatest difference comparison. In both phases, children's respiratory health was assessed by ISAAC-derived questionnaires. Indoor CO2 concentrations and building characteristics of the DCC were evaluated in both phases, using complementary methods. Mixed effect models were used to analyze the data. In phase I, which included 3,186 children (mean age 3.1±1.5 years), indoor CO2 concentration in the DCC rooms was associated with reported wheezing in the past 12 months (27.5 %) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each increase of 200 ppm 1.04, 95 % CI 1:01 to 1:07). In phase II, the association in the subsample of 1,196 children seen in 19 out of the initial 45 DCCs was not significant (adjusted OR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.96 to 1.08). Indoor CO2 concentration was inversely associated with the practices of opening windows and internal doors and with higher wind velocity. A positive trend was observed between CO2 and prevalence of reported asthma (4.7 %). Conclusion: Improved ventilation is needed to achieve a healthier indoor environment in DCC. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

KW - carbon dioxide

KW - tobacco smoke

KW - carbon dioxide, allergic rhinitis

KW - ambient air

KW - article

KW - asthma

KW - atopic dermatitis

KW - child

KW - cluster analysis

KW - comfort

KW - concentration (parameters)

KW - day care

KW - disease association

KW - female

KW - human

KW - humidity

KW - major clinical study

KW - male

KW - priority journal

KW - questionnaire

KW - wheezing

KW - abnormal respiratory sound

KW - adverse effects

KW - air conditioning

KW - environmental health

KW - indoor air pollution

KW - preschool child

KW - prevalence

KW - risk factor

KW - statistics and numerical data, Air Pollution, Indoor

KW - Asthma

KW - Carbon Dioxide

KW - Child Day Care Centers

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - Environmental Health

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Prevalence

KW - Respiratory Sounds

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Ventilation

U2 - 10.1007/s00431-014-2288-4

DO - 10.1007/s00431-014-2288-4

M3 - Article

VL - 173

SP - 1041

EP - 1049

JO - European Journal Of Pediatrics

JF - European Journal Of Pediatrics

SN - 0340-6199

IS - 8

ER -