Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a genetically heterogeneous condition enriched in some consanguineous populations, results from recessive mutations affecting cilia biogenesis and motility. Currently, diagnosis requires multiple expert tests. Methods: The diagnostic utility of multigene panel next-generation sequencing (NGS) was evaluated in 161 unrelated families from multiple population ancestries. Results: Most (82%) families had affected individuals with biallelic or hemizygous (75%) or single (7%) pathogenic causal alleles in known PCD genes. Loss-of-function alleles dominate (73% frameshift, stop-gain, splice site), most (58%) being homozygous, even in non-consanguineous families. Although 57% (88) of the total 155 diagnostic disease variants were novel, recurrent mutations and mutated genes were detected. These differed markedly between white European (52% of families carry DNAH5 or DNAH11 mutations), Arab (42% of families carry CCDC39 or CCDC40 mutations) and South Asian (single LRRC6 or CCDC103 mutations carried in 36% of families) patients, revealing a striking genetic stratification according to population of origin in PCD. Genetics facilitated successful diagnosis of 81% of families with normal or inconclusive ultrastructure and 67% missing prior ultrastructure results. Conclusions: This study shows the added value of high-throughput targeted NGS in expediting PCD diagnosis. Therefore, there is potential significant patient benefit in wider and/or earlier implementation of genetic screening.
- mutation spectrum
- primary ciliary dyskinesia