Cholinium-based ionic liquid methacrylic monomers having halide, lactate and acetate counter-anions were synthesized and polymerized by using conventional free radical polymerization. The polymer properties were characterized by NMR, SEC/GPC, TGA, and DSC and compared among eight different cationic polymethacrylic analogs. Polycations with different methacrylic alkylammonium backbones having lactate anion displayed comparatively better thermal stability than those having the acetate counter-anions and they also exhibited lower glass transition temperatures than their counterparts having acetate and halide counteranions. As an application, cholinium lactate methacrylate ionic liquid monomer was used to prepare ion gels by photopolymerization. Interestingly, these are the first examples of ion gels which are fully composed of low toxicity and biocompatible cholinium ionic liquids. Furthermore, the same ionic liquid monomer, cholinium lactate methacrylate, showed the ability to dissolve cellulose. This facilitated the preparation of transparent poly(ionic liquid)/cellulose composite coatings by photopolymerization.