Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of solid residues produced during the co-pyrolysis of plastics and pine biomass

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Abstract

A mixture of 70% (w/w) pine biomass and 30% (w/w) plastics (mixture of polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene) was subjected to pyrolysis at 400 °C, for 15 min, with an initial pressure of 40 MPa. Part of the solid residue produced was subjected to extraction with dichloromethane (DCM). The extracted residue (residue A) and raw residue (residue B) were analyzed by weight loss combustion and submitted to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268-2 using two different leachants: DCM (0.2%, v/v) and calcium chloride (0.001 mol/L). The concentrations of the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cu were determined in the eluates and in the two residues. The eluates were further characterized by determining their pH and the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). The presence of other organic contaminants in the eluates was qualitatively evaluated by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. An ecotoxicological characterization was also performed by using the bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the French proposal of Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Ecotoxicity (CEMWE). Residue A was not considered to be ecotoxic by the ecotoxicological criterion (EC50 (30 min) ≥10%), but it was considered to be ecotoxic by the chemical criterion (Ni ≥ 0.5 mg/L). Residue B was considered to be ecotoxic by the ecotoxicological criterion: EC50 (30 min) ≤ 10%. Besides that, residue B was considered to be hazardous according the European legislation (BTEX concentrations higher than 100 ppb). The results indicate that volatile organic contaminants can be present in sufficient amounts in these residues and their eluates to induce ecotoxicity levels. The extraction of the pyrolysis residue with DCM was an efficient method for removing lighter organic contaminants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-317
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume166
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2009

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Methylene Chloride
Dichloromethane
Biomass
pyrolysis
Plastics
Xylenes
Pyrolysis
Ethylbenzene
BTEX
plastic
Toluene
Impurities
Xylene
Benzene
pollutant
biomass
Aliivibrio fischeri
Calcium Chloride
Calcium chloride
Polypropylenes

Keywords

  • Chemical and ecotoxicological analysis
  • Eluates
  • Pyrolysis residues

Cite this

@article{7b4c176dd88b496395c04501df8c6ea9,
title = "Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of solid residues produced during the co-pyrolysis of plastics and pine biomass",
abstract = "A mixture of 70{\%} (w/w) pine biomass and 30{\%} (w/w) plastics (mixture of polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene) was subjected to pyrolysis at 400 °C, for 15 min, with an initial pressure of 40 MPa. Part of the solid residue produced was subjected to extraction with dichloromethane (DCM). The extracted residue (residue A) and raw residue (residue B) were analyzed by weight loss combustion and submitted to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268-2 using two different leachants: DCM (0.2{\%}, v/v) and calcium chloride (0.001 mol/L). The concentrations of the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cu were determined in the eluates and in the two residues. The eluates were further characterized by determining their pH and the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). The presence of other organic contaminants in the eluates was qualitatively evaluated by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. An ecotoxicological characterization was also performed by using the bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the French proposal of Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Ecotoxicity (CEMWE). Residue A was not considered to be ecotoxic by the ecotoxicological criterion (EC50 (30 min) ≥10{\%}), but it was considered to be ecotoxic by the chemical criterion (Ni ≥ 0.5 mg/L). Residue B was considered to be ecotoxic by the ecotoxicological criterion: EC50 (30 min) ≤ 10{\%}. Besides that, residue B was considered to be hazardous according the European legislation (BTEX concentrations higher than 100 ppb). The results indicate that volatile organic contaminants can be present in sufficient amounts in these residues and their eluates to induce ecotoxicity levels. The extraction of the pyrolysis residue with DCM was an efficient method for removing lighter organic contaminants.",
keywords = "Chemical and ecotoxicological analysis, Eluates, Pyrolysis residues",
author = "Bernardo, {Maria S.} and N. Lapa and R. Barbosa and M. Gon{\cc}alves and B. Mendes and F. Pinto and I. Gulyurtlu",
note = "The authors would like to acknowledge the Foundation for Science and Technology for supporting the POCI/ENR/63388/2004 project, which enabled this present work to be conducted.",
year = "2009",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of solid residues produced during the co-pyrolysis of plastics and pine biomass

AU - Bernardo, Maria S.

AU - Lapa, N.

AU - Barbosa, R.

AU - Gonçalves, M.

AU - Mendes, B.

AU - Pinto, F.

AU - Gulyurtlu, I.

N1 - The authors would like to acknowledge the Foundation for Science and Technology for supporting the POCI/ENR/63388/2004 project, which enabled this present work to be conducted.

PY - 2009/7/15

Y1 - 2009/7/15

N2 - A mixture of 70% (w/w) pine biomass and 30% (w/w) plastics (mixture of polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene) was subjected to pyrolysis at 400 °C, for 15 min, with an initial pressure of 40 MPa. Part of the solid residue produced was subjected to extraction with dichloromethane (DCM). The extracted residue (residue A) and raw residue (residue B) were analyzed by weight loss combustion and submitted to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268-2 using two different leachants: DCM (0.2%, v/v) and calcium chloride (0.001 mol/L). The concentrations of the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cu were determined in the eluates and in the two residues. The eluates were further characterized by determining their pH and the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). The presence of other organic contaminants in the eluates was qualitatively evaluated by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. An ecotoxicological characterization was also performed by using the bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the French proposal of Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Ecotoxicity (CEMWE). Residue A was not considered to be ecotoxic by the ecotoxicological criterion (EC50 (30 min) ≥10%), but it was considered to be ecotoxic by the chemical criterion (Ni ≥ 0.5 mg/L). Residue B was considered to be ecotoxic by the ecotoxicological criterion: EC50 (30 min) ≤ 10%. Besides that, residue B was considered to be hazardous according the European legislation (BTEX concentrations higher than 100 ppb). The results indicate that volatile organic contaminants can be present in sufficient amounts in these residues and their eluates to induce ecotoxicity levels. The extraction of the pyrolysis residue with DCM was an efficient method for removing lighter organic contaminants.

AB - A mixture of 70% (w/w) pine biomass and 30% (w/w) plastics (mixture of polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene) was subjected to pyrolysis at 400 °C, for 15 min, with an initial pressure of 40 MPa. Part of the solid residue produced was subjected to extraction with dichloromethane (DCM). The extracted residue (residue A) and raw residue (residue B) were analyzed by weight loss combustion and submitted to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268-2 using two different leachants: DCM (0.2%, v/v) and calcium chloride (0.001 mol/L). The concentrations of the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cu were determined in the eluates and in the two residues. The eluates were further characterized by determining their pH and the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). The presence of other organic contaminants in the eluates was qualitatively evaluated by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. An ecotoxicological characterization was also performed by using the bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the French proposal of Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Ecotoxicity (CEMWE). Residue A was not considered to be ecotoxic by the ecotoxicological criterion (EC50 (30 min) ≥10%), but it was considered to be ecotoxic by the chemical criterion (Ni ≥ 0.5 mg/L). Residue B was considered to be ecotoxic by the ecotoxicological criterion: EC50 (30 min) ≤ 10%. Besides that, residue B was considered to be hazardous according the European legislation (BTEX concentrations higher than 100 ppb). The results indicate that volatile organic contaminants can be present in sufficient amounts in these residues and their eluates to induce ecotoxicity levels. The extraction of the pyrolysis residue with DCM was an efficient method for removing lighter organic contaminants.

KW - Chemical and ecotoxicological analysis

KW - Eluates

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