Cheeses made from raw and pasteurized cow’s milk analysed by an electronic nose and an electronic tongue

Nuno I. P. Valente, Alisa Rudnitskaya, João A. B. P. Oliveira, M. Teresa S. R. Gomes, Elvira M. M. Gaspar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Cheese prepared from whole milk, raw and pasteurized, were analysed by an electronic nose based on piezoelectric quartz crystals and an electronic tongue based on potentiometric sensors, immediately after their preparation and along ripening (after 7 and 21 days). Whey was also analysed by the potentiometric electronic tongue. Results obtained by the electronic nose and tongue were found to be complementary, with the electronic nose being more sensitive to differences in the milk and the electronic tongue being more sensitive to milk pasteurization. Electronic tongue was able to distinguish cheeses made from raw and pasteurized milk, both analysing the whey or the curd, with correct classification rate of 96% and 84%, respectively. Besides, the electronic nose was more sensitive than the electronic tongue to the ripening process, with large differences between samples after 7 and 21 days, while the electronic tongue was only sensitive to the initial maturation stages, with large difference between freshly prepared cheese and with seven days of maturation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2415
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018


  • Acoustic wave sensor
  • Cheese
  • Electronic nose
  • Electronic tongue
  • Pasteurization
  • Piezoelectric quartz crystal
  • Potentiometric sensor


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