Charge-transfer complexation as a general phenomenon in the copigmentation of anthocyanins

Palmira Ferreira Da Silva, João C. Lima, Adilson A. Freitas, Karina Shimizu, Antonio L. Maçanita, Frank H. Quina

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69 Citations (Scopus)


Color intensification of anthocyanin solutions in the presence of natural polyphenols (copigmentation) is re-interpreted in terms of charge transfer from the copigment to the anthocyanin. Flavylium cations are shown to be excellent electron acceptors (Ered ≈ -0.3 V vs SCE). It is also demonstrated, for a large series of anthocyanin-copigment pairs, that the standard Gibbs free energy of complex formation decreases linearly with EA Anthoc - IPCop, the difference between the electron affinity of the anthocyanin, EAAnthoc, and the ionization potential of the copigment, IPcop- Based on this correlation, copigmentation strengths of potential candidates for copigments can be predicted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7329-7338
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry A
Issue number32
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2005


  • Anthocyanins
  • Flowers
  • Flavylium cation


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