Characterization of the glaze and in-glaze pigments of the nineteenth-century relief tiles from the Pena National Palace, Sintra, Portugal

M. L. Coutinho, J. P. Veiga, L. C. Alves, J. Mirão, L. Dias, A. M. Lima, V. S. Muralha, M. F. Macedo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The glaze and in-glaze pigments of the historical nineteenth-century glazed tiles from the Pena National Palace (Sintra, Portugal) were characterized using a multi-analytical approach. Chemical composition and microstructural characterization were ascertained by µ-PIXE, µ-Raman, optical microscopy and VP-SEM–EDS. The manufacturing technique and colour palette in these tiles were found to be close to the ceramic pigments used in traditional majolica. The blue and purple colours derive from cobalt oxide and manganese oxide, respectively. A mixture of Pb–Sn–Sb yellow with cobalt oxide and iron oxide was used for green and dark yellow, respectively, while grey tonalities consist of a complex mixture of cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and Pb–Sn–Sb yellow in different proportions. Results obtained allowed the determination of the oxides and elements used in pigments as well as production techniques, resorting to traditional majolica manufacture, although the tiles were produced by the end of the nineteenth century.

Original languageEnglish
Article number696
JournalApplied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing
Volume122
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016

Keywords

  • RAY-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY
  • RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY
  • CERAMIC PIGMENTS
  • BLUE PIGMENTS
  • MICRO-RAMAN
  • LEAD
  • YELLOW
  • MAJOLICA
  • IDENTIFICATION
  • DIFFERENTIATE

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