Investment in technological research is imperative to stimulate the development of sustainable solutions for the agricultural sector. Advances in Internet of Things, sensors and sensor networks, robotics, artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, etc. foster the transition towards the Agriculture 4.0 era. This fourth revolution is currently seen as a possible solution for improving agricultural growth, ensuring the future needs of the global population in a fair, resilient and sustainable way. In this context, this article aims at characterising the current Agriculture 4.0 landscape. Emerging trends were compiled using a semi-automated process by analysing relevant scientific publications published in the past ten years. Subsequently, a literature review focusing these trends was conducted, with a particular emphasis on their applications in real environments. From the results of the study, some challenges are discussed, as well as opportunities for future research. Finally, a high-level cloud-based IoT architecture is presented, serving as foundation for designing future smart agricultural systems. It is expected that this work will positively impact the research around Agriculture 4.0 systems, providing a clear characterisation of the concept along with guidelines to assist the actors in a successful transition towards the digitalisation of the sector.

Original languageEnglish
Article number667
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021


  • Agriculture 4.0
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Cloud computing
  • Decision support system
  • Internet of things
  • Robotics
  • Sensors


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