CHAPTER 17

Lessons from Denitrification for the Human Metabolism of Signalling Nitric Oxide

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The nitric oxide radical NO (NO) is a signalling molecule involved in several physiological processes in humans, including vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, platelet aggregation, apoptosis and gene expression. Undue normal conditions, NO synthases catalyse the formation of NO from l-arginine and dioxygen. Yet, upon a hypoxic event, when the decreased dioxygen concentration compromises NO synthase activity, cells can generate NO from another source: nitrite. Since the late 1990s, it has become clear that nitrite can be reduced back to NO under hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Simultaneously, it was realised that nitrite can exert a significant cytoprotective action in vivo during ischaemia and other pathological conditions. Presently, blood and tissue nitrite are recognised as NO "storage forms" that can be made available in order to maintain NO formation and ensure cell signalling and survival under challenging conditions. To reduce nitrite to NO, human cells can use different metalloproteins that are present in cells for carrying out other functions, including several haemic proteins and molybdoenzymes, forming what we refer to as "non-dedicated nitrite reductases". In this chapter, two non-dedicated nitrite reductases - xanthine oxidase and myoglobin - will be described, and the human nitrate/nitrite/NO signalling pathway will be discussed within the cellular context and the nitrogen cycle scenario.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMolybdenum and Tungsten Enzymes
Subtitle of host publicationBiochemistry
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry
Pages419-443
Number of pages25
Volume2017-January
Edition9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017

Publication series

NameRSC Metallobiology
Number9
Volume2017-January
ISSN (Print)2045-547X

Fingerprint

Denitrification
Nitrites
Metabolism
Nitric Oxide
Nitrite Reductases
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Nitrogen Cycle
Metalloproteins
Physiological Phenomena
Oxygen
Cell signaling
Xanthine Oxidase
Myoglobin
Platelets
Platelet Aggregation
Gene expression
Vasodilation
Synaptic Transmission
Nitrates
Arginine

Cite this

Maia, L. B., & Moura, J. J. G. (2017). CHAPTER 17: Lessons from Denitrification for the Human Metabolism of Signalling Nitric Oxide. In Molybdenum and Tungsten Enzymes: Biochemistry (9 ed., Vol. 2017-January, pp. 419-443). (RSC Metallobiology; Vol. 2017-January, No. 9). Royal Society of Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1039/9781782623762-00419
Maia, Luísa B. ; Moura, José J.G. / CHAPTER 17 : Lessons from Denitrification for the Human Metabolism of Signalling Nitric Oxide. Molybdenum and Tungsten Enzymes: Biochemistry. Vol. 2017-January 9. ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017. pp. 419-443 (RSC Metallobiology; 9).
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Maia, LB & Moura, JJG 2017, CHAPTER 17: Lessons from Denitrification for the Human Metabolism of Signalling Nitric Oxide. in Molybdenum and Tungsten Enzymes: Biochemistry. 9 edn, vol. 2017-January, RSC Metallobiology, no. 9, vol. 2017-January, Royal Society of Chemistry, pp. 419-443. https://doi.org/10.1039/9781782623762-00419

CHAPTER 17 : Lessons from Denitrification for the Human Metabolism of Signalling Nitric Oxide. / Maia, Luísa B.; Moura, José J.G.

Molybdenum and Tungsten Enzymes: Biochemistry. Vol. 2017-January 9. ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017. p. 419-443 (RSC Metallobiology; Vol. 2017-January, No. 9).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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Maia LB, Moura JJG. CHAPTER 17: Lessons from Denitrification for the Human Metabolism of Signalling Nitric Oxide. In Molybdenum and Tungsten Enzymes: Biochemistry. 9 ed. Vol. 2017-January. Royal Society of Chemistry. 2017. p. 419-443. (RSC Metallobiology; 9). https://doi.org/10.1039/9781782623762-00419