Carbon-Yarn-Based Supercapacitors with In Situ Regenerated Cellulose Hydrogel for Sustainable Wearable Electronics

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Developing sustainable options for energy storage in textiles is needed to power future wearable "Internet of Things" (IoT) electronics. This process must consider disruptive alternatives that address questions of sustainability, reuse, repair, or even a second life application. Herein, we pair stretch-broken carbon fiber yarns (SBCFYs), as current collectors, and an in situ regenerated cellulose-based ionic hydrogel (RCIH), as an electrolyte, to fabricate 1D fiber-shaped supercapacitors (FSCs). The areal specific capacitance reaches 433.02 μF·cm-2at 5 μA·cm-2, while the specific energy density is 1.73 × 10-2μWh·cm-2. The maximum achieved specific power density is 5.33 × 10-1mW·cm-2at 1 mA·cm-2. The 1D FSCs possess a long-life cycle and 92% capacitance retention after 10 »000 consecutive voltammetry cycles, higher than similar ones using the reference PVA/H3PO4gel electrolyte. Additionally, the feasibility and reproducibility of the produced devices were demonstrated by connecting three devices in series and parallel, showing a small variation of the current density in flat and bent positions. An environmentally responsible approach was implemented by recovering the active materials from the 1D FSCs and reusing or recycling them without compromising the electrochemical performance, thus ensuring a circular economy path.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11987-11996
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number10
Early online date12 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - 24 Oct 2022


  • cellulose
  • carbon fibers
  • fiber-shaped
  • energy storage
  • supercapacitor
  • sustainability


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