This work reviews the latest developments of cathodes for electrochemical CO2 reduction, with carbon black, mesoporous carbons, carbon nanofibers, graphene, its derivatives and/or carbon nanotubes as constituents. Electrochemical CO2 reduction into fuels and chemicals powered by renewable energy is a technology that can contribute to climate change mitigation. Strategies used in this fast-evolving field are discussed, having in mind a commercial application. Electrochemical performance of several materials is analyzed, using in some cases the findings of theoretical computational studies, which show the enormous potential of these materials. Considerable challenges still lie ahead to bring this technology into industrial deployment. However, the significant progress achieved so far shows that further R&D efforts might pay off.
- electrochemical reduction of CO2
- nanocarbon catalysts
- carbon nanotubes
- CO2 utilization