Carbon formation at high temperatures (550–1400 ◦c): Kinetics, alternative mechanisms and growth modes

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This Note aims at clarifying the alternative mechanisms of carbon formation from gases at temperatures above 550 ◦C. Both the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a hybrid route, and of graphene layers deposition by a pyrolytic route are analyzed: The transition had no influence in apparent kinetics, but the carbon structure was totally different. The transition temperature from hybrid to pyrolytic growth varies with the gas pressure: Higher temperature transition was possible using lower active gas pressures. The rate-determining step concept is essential to understanding the behavior. In catalytic and hybrid carbon formation, the slower step controls and determines kinetics. In the pyrolytic region, the faster step dominates, and carbon bulk diffusion is blocked: Layers of graphene cover the external catalyst surface. It is easier to optimize CNTs growth (rate, shape, properties) knowing the details of the alternative mechanisms operating.

Original languageEnglish
Article number465
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • Carbon formation
  • High temperature pyrolysis
  • Kinetics
  • Mechanism
  • Structure


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