Boosting immunity against multiple myeloma

Raquel Lopes, Bruna Velosa Ferreira, Joana Caetano, Filipa Barahona, Emilie Arnault Carneiro, Cristina João

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
42 Downloads (Pure)


Despite the improvement of patient’s outcome obtained by the current use of immunomod-ulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors or anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies, multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease. More recently, the testing in clinical trials of novel drugs such as anti-BCMA CAR-T cells, antibody–drug conjugates or bispecific antibodies broadened the possibility of improving patients’ survival. However, thus far, these treatment strategies have not been able to steadily eliminate all malignant cells, and the aim has been to induce a long-term complete response with minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative status. In this sense, approaches that target not only myeloma cells but also the surrounding microenvironment are promising strategies to achieve a sustained MRD negativity with prolonged survival. This review provides an overview of current and future strategies used for immunomodulation of MM focusing on the impact on bone marrow (BM) immunome.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1221
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Mar 2021


  • Bone marrow immune microenvironment
  • Immunotherapy
  • Multiple myeloma


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