Biomonitoring of occupational exposure to bisphenol A, bisphenol S and bisphenol F: a systematic review

Radia Bousoumah, Veruscka Leso, Ivo Iavicoli, Pasi Huuskonen, Susana Viegas, Simo P. Porras, Tiina Santonen, Nadine Frery, Alain Robert, Sophie Ndaw

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

90 Citations (Scopus)
60 Downloads (Pure)


Bisphenol A (BPA) and its substitutes bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) are endocrine disrupting chemicals widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and thermal papers. The aim of the review was to identify occupational studies using human biomonitoring (HBM) as a tool for bisphenol exposure assessment and to characterize research gaps on the topic as part of the HBM4EU project. Hence, a systematic literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology was conducted for articles published between 2000 and 27th March 2020 across three databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science). Thirty studies on the occupational HBM of BPA met the inclusion criteria. Regarding BPS and BPF, only 4 and 2 publications were retrieved, respectively. Fifty-seven percent (57%) of the studies selected for BPA were conducted in Asia whereas half of BPS and BPF studies were undertaken in Europe. Studies on BPA in plastic and epoxy resin sectors were infrequent in Europe while Asian data showed higher exposure when the substance is employed as raw material. The main data on BPS were among cashiers while BPF data were available from incinerator workers. Several research gaps have been identified: (i) shortage of HBM studies on occupational exposure, especially to BPS and BPF; (ii) different methodological designs making suitable comparisons between studies difficult; and (iii) only few studies conducted on the industrial applications of bisphenols outside Asia. This review highlights the lack of recent occupational HBM studies on bisphenols and the need for a harmonized approach to acquire reliable data. Considering the increasing replacement of BPA by BPS and BPF, it is of relevance to evaluate the exposure to these substances and the impact of the available risk management measures on workers exposure and possible health risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number146905
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 20 Aug 2021


  • Biomonitoring
  • Bisphenols
  • Endocrine disrupters
  • Exposure assessment
  • Occupational health


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