Biocompatibility, Bioactivity, and Antibacterial Behaviour of Cerium-Containing Bioglass®

Sílvia R. Gavinho, Ana Sofia Pádua, Isabel Sá-Nogueira, Jorge C. Silva, João P. Borges, Luís C. Costa, Manuel Pedro F. Graça

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
71 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The main reason for the increased use of dental implants in clinical practice is associated with aesthetic parameters. Implants are also presented as the only technique that conserves and stimulates natural bone. However, there are several problems associated with infections, such as peri-implantitis. This disease reveals a progressive inflammatory action that affects the hard and soft tissues surrounding the implant, leading to implant loss. To prevent the onset of this disease, coating the implant with bioactive glasses has been suggested. In addition to its intrinsic function of promoting bone regeneration, it is also possible to insert therapeutic ions, such as cerium. Cerium has several advantages when the aim is to improve osseointegration and prevent infectious problems with dental implant placement. It promotes increased growth and the differentiation of osteoblasts, improves the mechanical properties of bone, and prevents bacterial adhesion and proliferation that may occur on the implant surface. This antibacterial effect is due to its ability to disrupt the cell wall and membrane of bacteria, thus interfering with vital metabolic functions such as respiration. In addition, its antioxidant effect reverses oxidative stress after implantation in bone. In this work, Bioglass 45S5 with CeO2 with different percentages (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mol%) was developed by the melt-quenching method. The materials were analyzed in terms of morphological, structural, and biological (cytotoxicity, bioactivity, and antibacterial activity) properties. The addition of cerium did not promote structural changes to the bioactive glass, which shows no cytotoxicity for the Saos-2 cell line up to 25 mg/mL of extract concentration for all cerium contents. For the maximum cerium concentration (2 mol%) the bioactive glass shows an evident inhibitory effect for Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Furthermore, all samples showed the beginning of the deposition of a CaP-rich layer on the surface of the material after 24 h.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4479
Number of pages11
JournalNanomaterials
Volume12
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2022

Keywords

  • antibacterial properties
  • bioactivity
  • Bioglass
  • cerium
  • implant coatings

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