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Open-cell foams based on hydroxyapatite (HAp) can mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) to better replace damaged hard tissues and assist in their regeneration processes. Aerogels of HAp nanowires (NW) with barium titanate (BT) particles were produced and characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties, bioactivity, and in vitro cytotoxicity. Considering the role of piezoelectricity (mainly due to collagen) and surface charges in bone remodeling, all BT particles, of size 280 nm and 2 and 3 µm, contained BaTiO3 in their piezoelectric tetragonal phase. The synthesized nanowires were verified to be AB-type carbonated hydroxyapatite. The aerogels showed high porosity and relatively homogeneous distribution of the BT particles. Barium titanate proved to be non-cytotoxic while all the aerogels produced were cytotoxic for an extract concentration of 1 mg/mL but became non-cytotoxic at concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL and below. It is possible that these results were affected by the higher surface area and quicker dissolution rate of the aerogels. In the bioactivity assays, SEM/EDS, it was not easy to differentiate between the apatite deposition and the surface of the HAp wires. However, a quantitative EDS analysis shows a possible CaP deposition/dissolution cycle taking place.
Original languageEnglish
Article number143
Number of pages17
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 27 Feb 2024


  • aerogel
  • barium titanate
  • bioactivity
  • hydroxyapatite
  • piezoelectricity
  • solvothermal synthesis


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