Variations in the rates of involuntary admission (IA) reflect the influence of unexplained contextual variables that are typically too heterogeneous to be included in systematic reviews. This paper attempts to gather and analyze factors unrelated to the patients that have been linked to IA. The articles included in this review were selected by iteratively searching four electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science). A total of 54 studies from 19 different countries and regions, including 14 European countries, the United States, Canada, China, Vietnam, and Taiwan, were selected. The factors were categorized as service-related factors, impactful events, seasonal and temporal factors, mental health legislation, staff factors, and public attitudes. The factors rarely act in isolation but rather interact and reinforce each other, causing a greater influence on IA. This paper explains how these factors present opportunities for robust and sustainable interventions to reduce IAs. The paper also identifies future directions for research, such as examining the effects of economic recessions. Enhancing global reporting standards is essential to validate future research and support further in-depth studies. The complexity of the factors influencing IA and the implicit role of society suggest that resolving it will require social change.
- involuntary admission
- public attitudes