Average K-, L-, and M-shell fluorescence yields: A new semi-empirical formulae

K. Meddouh, S. Daoudi, A. Kahoul, J. M. Sampaio, J. P. Marques, F. Parente, N. Kup Aylikci, V. Aylikci, Y. Kasri, A. Hamidani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Theoretical, experimental, and analytical methods for the calculation of K-, L-, and M-shell fluorescence yields (ωKL,andωM) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical-chemistry, and medical research. In the present work, all the experimental K-, L-, and M-shell fluorescence yields taken from distinctive sources, for elements with atomic number 4≤Z≤99 for the K shell, 23≤Z≤96 for the L shell, and 40≤Z≤92for the M shell, are studied. A detailed analysis of these data, and a table with weighted average values (ωKWLW,andωMW)of these parameters are presented. New recommended values ωWR are obtained dividing the experimental ratios (ωEXP) by the weighted ratios (ωW) and removing out-of-range values (less than 0.9 or greater than 1.1). At that point, new values of average fluorescence yields were deduced using an interpolation that involves the well-known analytical function [ωWR/(1−ωWR)]1/4as function of the atomic number Z, and then semi-empirical data were deduced by fitting the ratio S=ωEXPWR, for the three shells. A comparison was made with other theoretical, experimental, and empirical values reported in the literature. An evident correlation was observed between our result and other works.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110481
Number of pages40
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Atomic fundamental parameters fluorescence yields
  • Recommended weighted average values
  • Semi-empirical calculation
  • X-rays


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