Associations of Measured Protein and Energy Intakes with Growth and Adiposity in Human Milk-Fed Preterm Infants at Term Postmenstrual Age: A Cohort Study

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:  To determine the associations of measured protein, energy, and protein-to-energy (PER) intakes with body composition in human milk (HM)-fed preterm infants.

STUDY DESIGN:  Neonates born at < 33 gestational weeks were eligible. Standard fortification method with modular supplements was used and the HM composition was measured. The weight gain velocity was calculated, and body composition was assessed by air displacement plethysmography at 40 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). The fat mass percentage and fat mass index were used as indicators of adiposity, with convenience cut-offs ≤ -1 and ≥ + 1z-scores for low and high adiposity, respectively.

RESULTS:  Thirty-three infants were included (median [interquartile range] gestational age: 30 [28-31] weeks; birth weight: 1.175 [1.010-1.408] g); 36.4 and 84.8% did not receive the minimum recommended protein and energy intakes, respectively. Weight gain velocity showed positive weak-to-moderate correlations with nutrient intakes. Overall, no correlations between nutrient intakes and body composition were found. Infants with lower adiposity received lower energy, protein, and PER intakes, while those with higher adiposity received lower energy intake but higher PER intake.

CONCLUSION:  Overall, no correlations of nutrient intakes with body composition were found; however, differences in nutrient intakes were found between infants with lower and higher adiposity at term PMA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)882-891
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of perinatology
Volume35
Issue number9
Early online date2 Feb 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018

Keywords

  • body composition
  • energy intake
  • growth velocity
  • human milk composition
  • protein intake
  • very preterm infant

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