Association of 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Exposure during Pregnancy with Maternal Outcomes and Newborn Anthropometric Measures: Results from the IoMum Cohort Study

Juliana Guimarães, Isabella Bracchi, Cátia Pinheiro, Nara Xavier Moreira, Cláudia Matta Coelho, Diogo Pestana, Maria do Carmo Prucha, Cristina Martins, Valentina F. Domingues, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Cláudia C. Dias, Luís Filipe R. Azevedo, Conceição Calhau, João Costa Leite, Carla Ramalho, Elisa Keating, Virgínia Cruz Fernandes

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Abstract

The aims of this study were to characterize the exposure of pregnant women living in Portugal to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and to evaluate the association of this exposure with maternal outcomes and newborn anthropometric measures. We also aimed to compare exposure in summer with exposure in winter. Pregnant women attending ultrasound scans from April 2018 to April 2019 at a central hospital in Porto, Portugal, were invited to participate. Inclusion criteria were: gestational week between 10 and 13, confirmed fetal vitality, and a signature of informed consent. 3-PBA was measured in spot urine samples by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The median 3-PBA concentration was 0.263 (0.167; 0.458) µg/g creatinine (n = 145). 3-PBA excretion was negatively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.049), and it was higher during the summer when compared to winter (p < 0.001). The frequency of fish or yogurt consumption was associated positively with 3-PBA excretion, particularly during the winter (p = 0.002 and p = 0.015, respectively), when environmental exposure is low. Moreover, 3-PBA was associated with levothyroxine use (p = 0.01), a proxy for hypothyroidism, which could be due to a putative 3-PBA—thyroid hormone antagonistic effect. 3-PBA levels were not associated with the anthropometric measures of the newborn. In conclusion, pregnant women living in Portugal are exposed to 3-PBA, particularly during summer, and this exposure may be associated with maternal clinical features.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125
JournalToxics
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023

Keywords

  • 3-PBA
  • anthropometry
  • newborn
  • pregnancy
  • pyrethroid pesticides

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