Assessing the Industry 4.0 European divide through the country/industry dichotomy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
66 Downloads (Pure)


Industry 4.0 refers to the application of new technologies to production and supply chain processes under the fourth industrial revolution (4th IR) paradigm and has been studied mainly in manufacturing. The present study looks to understand how the 4th IR manifests itself in the EU countries and across different industries through an Industry 4.0 perspective. Following a five-step research protocol that used a multivariate approach, Industry 4.0 Infrastructure, Big Data Maturity and Industry 4.0 Applications were identified as characterizing elements of Industry 4.0. Cluster analysis showed five homogeneous profiles of Industry 4.0 implementation across different industries and European countries. Our findings unveil a strong Industry 4.0 divide across (and within) European countries and industries. Industry 4.0 is much more determined by the industry than by the country. Knowledge of Industry 4.0 development conditions would greatly benefit from further research on the elements that drive the Industry 4.0 divide at the industry and country levels.
Original languageEnglish
Article number108925
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalComputers and Industrial Engineering
Issue numberFebruary
Early online date23 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • Industry 4.0
  • 4th Industrial Revolution
  • Industry 4.0 divide
  • asymmetries
  • European Union


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessing the Industry 4.0 European divide through the country/industry dichotomy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this