Are opportunities being missed? Burden of HIV, STI and TB, and unawareness of HIV among african migrants

S Dias, Ana Filipa de Mendonça da Gama, Ana Maria Tavares, Vera Reigado, Daniel Simões, Emília Carreiras, Cristina Mora, Andreia Pinto Ferreira

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6 Citations (Scopus)
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Sub-Saharan African migrants (SSAMs) have been disproportionately affected by infectious disease burden. We aimed to identify correlates of HIV, past sexually transmitted infection (STI) and past Tuberculosis infection (TB), as well as examine HIV seropositivity unawareness and testing history among SSAMs. A venue-based sample of 790 SSAMs completed a cross-sectional biobehavioral survey on sexual practices, HIV testing and self-reported infectious diseases; an HIV rapid test was offered. Overall, 5.4% of participants were HIV-positive and 16.7% reported a past STI. Odds of being HIV positive or having a past STI were higher among participants with low socioeconomic status and who experienced violence from a partner. Increased odds of having a past STI were also found among long-term migrants and those who reported sexual risk behaviors. In total, 4.1% of participants had TB in the past; these were more likely male and HIV positive. Unawareness of HIV-positive status was notably high (35%). Half of the participants had never been tested for HIV before, including over a third of those who had STI or TB in the past. Efforts are needed to reduce missed opportunities for HIV/STIs prevention and uptake of HIV testing among SSAMs through more integrated care, while addressing social determinants of infectious diseases.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2710
Pages (from-to)E2710-E2725
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
VolumeVol. 16
Issue numbern.º 15
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jul 2019


  • HIV
  • HIV testing
  • STI
  • TB
  • sub-Saharan African migrants
  • Unawareness of HIV


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