Aqueous mixture viscosities of phenolic deep eutectic solvents

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In this study, the aqueous mixture viscosities of two phenolic DESs, consisting of (1 ChCl: 3 phenol) and (1 ChCl: 4 phenol), were measured at atmospheric pressure over the temperature range of 293.15–333.15 K. According to the measured data, the values of viscosity deviations for the investigated aqueous systems were calculated to indicate deviating viscosity behavior with respect to ideality. Both aqueous systems showed negative viscosity deviations over the entire composition range and at all of the investigated temperatures. The Redlich-Kister model was applied to estimate the viscosity deviations of both aqueous systems at different compositions and temperatures, while the viscosity behavior, itself, was modeled by different literature models, consisting of the Grunberg-Nissan, Jouyban-Acree, McAllister, Preferential Solvation, and an Arrhenius-like viscosity model. All of the models presented satisfactory agreement, however the Preferential Solvation and the Jouyban-Acree models succeeded to achieve more reliable results as compared to the others. In addition to the mixture viscosity estimation models, the Jones-Dole viscosity model was applied to both of the aqueous systems to suggest the interactions in the mixture. By calculating and analyzing the values of the B-coefficients of this model, possibly stronger interactions among the DESs and water molecules in the mixture were suggested, as compared to the self-species interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113290
Number of pages12
JournalFluid Phase Equilibria
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Choline chloride
  • DES
  • Eutectic mixture
  • Excess viscosity
  • Physical property
  • Thermodynamic modeling
  • Transport property
  • Viscosity deviation
  • Water


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