AOX1-subfamily gene members in olea europaea cv. “Galega vulgar”—gene characterization and expression of transcripts during IBA-induced in vitro adventitious rooting

Isabel Velada, Dariusz Grzebelus, Diana Lousa, Cláudio M. Soares, Elisete Santos Macedo, Augusto Peixe, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt, Hélia G. Cardoso

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Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar ”Galega vulgar”. The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars.

Original languageEnglish
Article number597
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2018



  • Adventitious rooting
  • Alternative oxidase
  • Alternative polyadenylation
  • Auxins
  • Gene expression
  • IBA
  • Olive
  • Plant mitochondria
  • Transposable elements
  • Vegetative propagation

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