Antiproliferative Activity of Buddleja saligna (Willd.) against Melanoma and In Vivo Modulation of Angiogenesis

Danielle Twilley, Velaphi C. Thipe, Navneet Kishore, Pierce Bloebaum, Catarina Roma-Rodrigues, Pedro V. Baptista, Alexandra R. Fernandes, Mamoalosi A. Selepe, Lenka Langhansova, Kattesh Katti, Namrita Lall

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Melanoma cells secrete pro-angiogenic factors, which stimulates growth, proliferation and metastasis, and therefore are key therapeutic targets. Buddleja saligna (BS), and an isolated triterpenoid mixture (DT-BS-01) showed a fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 33.80 ± 1.02 and 5.45 ± 0.19 µg/mL, respectively, against melanoma cells (UCT-MEL-1) with selectivity index (SI) values of 1.64 and 5.06 compared to keratinocytes (HaCat). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition was observed with IC50 values of 35.06 ± 2.96 (BS) and 26.40 ± 4.19 µg/mL (DT-BS-01). BS (30 µg/mL) significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 (83.26 ± 17.60%) and IL-8 (100 ± 0.2%) production, whereas DT-BS-01 (5 µg/mL) showed 51.07 ± 2.83 (IL-6) and 0 ± 6.7% (IL-8) inhibition. Significant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition, by 15.84 ± 4.54 and 12.21 ± 3.48%, respectively, was observed. In the ex ovo chick embryo yolk sac membrane assay (YSM), BS (15 µg/egg) significantly reduced new blood vessel formation, with 53.34 ± 11.64% newly formed vessels. Silver and palladium BS nanoparticles displayed noteworthy SI values. This is the first report on the significant anti-angiogenic activity of BS and DT-BS-01 and should be considered for preclinical trials as there are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs to inhibit angiogenesis in melanoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1497
Number of pages24
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2022


  • angiogenesis
  • antiproliferative activity
  • Buddleja saligna
  • ex ovo YSM
  • melanoma


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