Antiphospholipid antibodies and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The multicenter athero-aps study

Daniele Pastori, Paul R.J. Ames, Massimo Triggiani, Antonio Ciampa, Vittoria Cammisotto, Roberto Carnevale, Pasquale Pignatelli, Tommaso Bucci

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Background. The prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is unknown. Methods. A prospective multicenter cohort study including 125 patients was conducted: 91 primary APS (PAPS), 18 APS-SLE, and 16 carriers. HFpEF was diagnosed according to the 2019 European Society of Cardiology criteria: patients with ≥5 points among major and minor functional and morphological criteria including NT-ProBNP > 220 pg/mL, left atrial (LA) enlargement, increased left ventricular filling pressure. Results. Overall, 18 (14.4%) patients were diagnosed with HFpEF; this prevalence increased from 6.3% in carriers to 13.2% in PAPS and 27.8% in APS-SLE. Patients with HFpEF were older and with a higher prevalence of hypertension and previous arterial events. At logistic regression analysis, age, arterial hypertension, anticardiolipin antibodies IgG > 40 GPL (odds ratio (OR) 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–10.77, p = 0.035), anti β-2-glycoprotein-I IgG > 40 GPL (OR 5.28, 1.53– 18.27, p = 0.009), lupus anticoagulants DRVVT > 1.25 (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.10–24.68, p = 0.038), and triple positivity (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.11–11.47, p = 0.033) were associated with HFpEF after adjustment for age and sex. By multivariate analysis, hypertension (OR 19.49, 95% CI 2.21–171.94, p = 0.008), age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00–1.14, p = 0.044), and aβ2GPI IgG > 40 GPL (OR 8.62, 95% CI 1.23–60.44, p = 0.030) were associated with HFpEF. Conclusion. HFpEF is detectable in a relevant proportion of APS patients. The role of aPL in the pathogenesis and prognosis of HFpEF needs further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3180
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2021


  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Echocardiography
  • Heart failure
  • HFpEF


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